Andorra is a small country with a population of 77,543 inhabitants and an area of 468 km2 located in the heart of the Pyrenees, with an average height of 2,044m, the lowest point of the principality is at 850m and the highest at 2,942m, coinciding with one of the peaks of the Coma Pedrosa valleys Natural Park.
Although Andorra's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is extremely small, strong, decisive and immediate climate action has been taken in the face of the threatened effects of climate change on the mountain territories, which are also particularly vulnerable to this phenomenon. As a sign of its international commitment, Andorra has been a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change since 2011 and signed the Paris Agreement in 2016.
Within the framework of Andorra's sustainable development policies, its objective is to generate a model of society based on economic growth, social cohesion and environmental protection, treating these issues and in an integrated manner as a single strategic challenge. In 2018, Andorra adopted Act No. 21/2018 of 13 September on promoting the energy transition and climate change.
This law gives a boost to all actions in the field of mitigation and adaptation to Climate Change, with the promotion of a new more sustainable energy model, where the whole society will have an active role in the system, and integrating adaptation to Climate Change in all public policies.
Likewise, on January 23, 2020, the General Council approved the declaration of a state of climate and ecological emergency, prepared with the active participation of young people, and which instructs the government to promote the transition to carbon neutrality, in compliance with the Sustainable Development Goal for Climate Action (No. 13) and the adoption of urgent measures in this area.
During the year 2020, Andorra updated the contributions determined at the national level (NDC) within the framework of the Paris Agreement. This document demonstrates the commitment to become a carbon-neutral territory by 2050, as well as to continue working to improve the territory's resilience, reassessing and incorporating new adaptation measures if necessary, in line with the road map set out in the future national energy and climate change strategy.
With regard to adaptation measures, in 2014 a participatory procedure on the adaptation of Andorra to Climate Change (PAACC) was carried out with the aim of identifying the possible impacts of Climate Change on the country's socio-economic and environmental sectors, in order to identify those most vulnerable and to identify adaptation measures to reduce this vulnerability and to deal with these impacts.
During the PAACC, the main impacts produced for climate change in the Principality were identified on the basis of previous scientific work, such as that prepared within the framework of the cooperation project of the Pyrenean Observatory for Climate Change. A total of 43 adaptation measures were identified, which are currently being reviewed and the National Energy and Climate Change Strategy provides for the incorporation of new measures if necessary, with due consideration for ecosystem services and prioritising nature-based solutions to increase the resilience of the territory, especially with regard to the priority issues identified in Law 21/2018 of 13 September on the promotion of energy transition and climate change, which are health, agriculture, energy and tourism.